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Bulgaria then transitioned into a democracy and a market-based economy.Since adopting a democratic constitution in 1991, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political, administrative, and economic centralisation.In 1946 Bulgaria became a one-party socialist state and part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc.The ruling Communist Party gave up its monopoly on power after the revolutions of 1989 and allowed multi-party elections.
This state lasted until the early 11th century, when Byzantine emperor Basil II conquered and dismantled it.
In the 6th to 3rd century BC the region was a battleground for Thracians, Persians, Celts and ancient Macedonians; stability came when the Roman Empire conquered the region in AD 45.
The Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire lost some of these territories to an invading Bulgar horde in the late 7th century.
It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east.
The capital and largest city is Sofia; other major cities are Plovdiv, Varna and Burgas.